Document Type : Original Article


1 Ph.D Condidate of public Management, Department of Management, Islamic Azad University, Sirjan Branch, Sirjan, Iran

2 assistant professor, Department of Management, Payam Noor university, Tehran, Iran.

3 Associate Professor, Department of Management, Islamic Azad University, Sirjan Branch, Sirjan, Iran


Purpose: this study has been conducted with the aim of understanding the phenomenon of evading teamwork with a phenomenological approach in the General Department of Cooperation, Labor and Social Welfare of Fars Province.
Method: The research method of the present study was conducted with qualitative analysis of hermeneutic phenomenology. In order to collect the data, an interview protocol was prepared. The statistical population included 11 eligible experts who were selected using the purposeful and non-probability sampling method, and in-depth and semi-structured interviews were given to them. Qualitative analysis of phenomenology has been used to identify the main and sub-categories of the research. MAXQDA software was used for qualitative analysis.
Findings: The findings showed that 39 sub-categories were identified by examining and categorizing the descriptive codes obtained from the interview texts, according to the seven-step process of Claysey and according to their semantic similarity and affinity, they have been categorized into 7 main concepts including: inadequacy of the educational system, negative personality traits, weak communication and interactions, inappropriate organizational structure, insufficient knowledge and awareness of employees, lack of budget and financial resources, and negative cultural beliefs. Holsti coefficient was used for the final validation, reliability, transferability and verifiability of the data. The value of PAO in the present study was 0.712, which is greater than 0.7, and the data was confirmed. The results show that the categories of inadequacy of the educational system, personality traits, poor communication and interactions, inappropriate organizational structure, insufficient knowledge and awareness of employees, lack of budget and financial resources, and negative cultural beliefs have a direct impact on teamwork.
Conclusion: Finally, practical suggestions were presented to the managers of the General Department of Cooperation, Labor and Social Welfare of Fars province to overcome the challenges and problems of teamwork evasion.


Agha Dawood, S.( 2015). Work teams in the organization. Isfahan: Academic Jihad Publishing Center, Industrial Unit. [ In persian]
Altuntas E. Gloor P. & Budner P. (2022). Measuring Ethical Values with AI for Better Teamwork. Future Internet, 14: 133.
Bani-Hani E. Al Shalabi A. Alkhatib F. Eilaghi A. & Sedaghat A.( 2018). Factors affecting the team formation and work in project based learning (PBL) for multidisciplinary engineering subjects. Journal of Problem Based Learning in Higher Education, 6: 136-143.
Bourgault A. M. & Goforth C. (2021). Embrace teamwork to create and maintain a positive workplace culture. Critical Care Nurse, 41: 8-10
Butterfield, J. (2018). Soft skills for everyone. Cengage Learning India Pvt Ltd, New Delhi.
D'Angelo M. Cervero .R. Durning S. & Varpio L. (2019). The teamwork model: proposing a model for studying interprofessional healthcare teams. Med Ed Publish, 8.
Danaei, H. Mashadi, M. Sarhadhi, I. (2016). Identifying obstacles to teamwork and providing solutions to improve teamwork in Khorasan Razavi Gas Organization. Master's thesis. Islamic Azad university. Faculty of Management and Accounting. Islamic Azad University, Shahrood branch. [ In persian]Dooroudi, H.; Ramek, J.( 2018). The effect of common leadership style and personality composition of teams by improving their efficiency (case study: Knowledge-based organization of living nature), the fourth national conference in accounting, management and financial engineering with emphasis on regional and world paradigms. [ In persian]
Driskell J. E. Salas E. & Driskell, T. (2018). Foundations of teamwork and collaboration. American Psychologist, 73: 334.
Ford, K., Menchine, M., Burner, E., Arora, S., Inaba, K., Demetriades, D., & Yersin B. (2016). Leadership and teamwork in trauma and resuscitation. Western Journal of Emergency Medicine, 17: 549.
Fuchshuber P. & Greif W. (2022). Creating effective communication and teamwork for patient safety. In The SAGES Manual of Quality, Outcomes and Patient Safety (pp. 443-460). Springer, Cham.
Jamshed S. & Majeed N. (2019). Relationship between team culture and team performance through lens of knowledge sharing and team emotional intelligence. Journal of Knowledge Management.
Jiang Z. DeHart‐Davis L. & Borry E. L. (2022). Managerial practice and diversity Climate: The roles of workplace voice, centralization, and teamwork. Public Administration Review, 82: 459-472.
Karimi, A. ;Abbaspour, A: and Abdullahi, H. (2018). Measuring and prioritizing the dimensions and components of organizational culture with the structural equation modeling approach. Studies in Organizational Behavior, 29: 159-190. [ In persian]
Kim S. Y. & Fernandez S. (2017). Employee empowerment and turnover intention in the US federal bureaucracy. The American Review of Public Administration, 47: 4-22.
Khairandish, M. ;God, A. and Mohammadi, A. (2014). The comprehensive model of factors affecting effective kartim in the context of the organization and its measurement scales. Studies in Organizational Behavior, 3: 31-60. [ In persian]
Luo G. Budnik K. Bogdziun D. & Tworek, K. (2021). Dynamic IT capabilities and their influence on job performance through teamwork. In Forum Scientiae Oeconomia. Vol. 9, No. 1, pp. 59-73.
Ma'air, A. ;Moradi, M. ; Khalilzadeh, M. ; Nobakht Sahrud Kalai, J. (2017). Investigating the performance of work teams in the organization and the factors affecting it. Police Organizational Development, 5: 23-44. [ In persian]
Malikpour, M. ; Baran Dost, R.  and Maalzadeh, A. (2017). The role of teamwork in empowering members of non-governmental organizations. Geography and Human Relations, 2: 969-988. [ In persian]
Mohammadi Bormi, H. (2016). Investigating the causes of the lack of working groups in Iran from the perspective of the sociological theory of hope and Marx's alienation, International Comprehensive Congress of Social Sciences of Iran, 15 Shahrivar, 120-129. [ In persian]Mousavi Kia, M. ; Hijazi, S H. (2016). Conceptualization of work teams and factors affecting team performance. The third comprehensive conference on urban management of Iran with the approach of infrastructures, services and sustainable urban development, 25 January, 620-634. [ In persian]
Muradpour Haji Firoz, A. ; Habibi, M.( 20160. The performance of work teams in organizations (case study of the General Environment Department of West Azerbaijan Province). The first national conference of modern studies of management in Iran, 23 May, 23-34. [ In persian]
Murzi H. G. Chowdhury T. M., Karlovsek J. & Ruiz Ulloa B. C. (2020). Working in large teams: measuring the impact of a teamwork model to facilitate teamwork development in engineering students working in a real project. The International journal of Engineering Education, 36: 274-295.
Ntalakos A. Belias D. Koustelios A. & Tsigilis N. (2022). Organizational culture and group dynamics in the tourism industry. In International Conference on Tourism Research Vol. 15: 286-293.
Oktapia A. Siagian H. & Tarigan Z. J. H. (2022). The effect of early supplier involvement on firm performance through teamwork and new product development. Petra International Journal of Business Studies, 5: 44-55.
Pazos P. Perez-Lopez M. C. & Gonzalez-Lopez M. J. (2022). Examining teamwork competencies and team performance in experiential entrepreneurship education: emergent intragroup conflict as a learning triggering event. Education+ Training.
Phuong H. V. & Huy T. H. (2022). Effects of teamwork on employee performance: a case study of the hotel Sector in Can Tho city. Vietnam.  Geo Journal of Tourism and Geosites, 41: 472-476.
Poghosyan L. Norful A. A. & Martsolf G. R. (2017). Primary care nurse practitioner practice characteristics: barriers and opportunities for interprofessional teamwork. The Journal of Ambulatory Care Management, 40 (1): 77.
Poursadegh, N. (2013). Examining internal obstacles to teamwork by employees using AHP. Quarterly Journal of Human Resource Studies, 3(9): 102-79. [ In persian]Pournaseh, M.  and My dear, D. (2012). Teamwork in the organization. Tehran: Mehr Kavian. [ In persian]
Rajabzadeh, A. ; Alizadeh Qani, M. (2018). The systemic model of teamwork effectiveness in the banking system (case study of J.A. Agricultural Bank). Bimonthly Daneshvar Behavat (Management and Development), 38: 91-104. [ In persian]
Rahimi, H.;  Baharloi, F. (2017). The effect of ethical climate on trust in teamwork with the mediating role of ethical behavior. Organizational Behavior Studies, 26: 129-158. [ In persian]Saadati, M. (2015). A new look at the category of purpose in Islamic formation and organization. Management in Islam, 24: 51-63. [ In persian]
Salas E. & Bisbey T. (2019). Team dynamics and processes in the workplace. In Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Psychology.
Salcinovic B. Drew M. Dijkstra, P. Waddington G. & Serpell B. G. (2022). Factors influencing team performance: what can support teams in high-performance sport learn from other industries? a systematic scoping review. Sports Medicine-Open, 8: 1-18.
Salmanpour, N. (2014). Investigating the effect of teamwork on the fulfillment of social responsibilities in the 115th emergency room of Shahrood. Master's thesis. Faculty of Management. Islamic Azad University, Shahrood branch. [ In persian]
Sreehari P. (2021). Essential soft skills for workplace success. Revista Geintec-Gestao Inovacao a Tecnologias. 11: 2648-2654.
Touhidi Sadr, E. (2015). Factors affecting the performance of work teams in the restructuring engineering project. Master's thesis. Faculty of Management and Accounting. Allameh Tabatabaei University. [ In persian]
Trent, R. J. (2016). Understanding the many factors that affect the success of organizational work teams. Journal of Business, Vol. 1, No. 6, Pp. 1-14.
Weller, J., Boyd, M., & Cumin, D. (2014). Teams, tribes and patient safety: overcoming barriers to effective teamwork in healthcare. Postgraduate Medical Journal, 90(1061): 149-154.
Zhang, W., Sun, S. L., Jiang, Y., & Zhang, W. (2019). Openness to experience and team creativity: effects of knowledge sharing and transformational leadership. Creativity Research Journal, 31 (1): 62-73.