Document Type : Original Article


1 PhD Candidate, Department of Curriculum Planning, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

2 Assistant Professor, Department of Curriculum Planning, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.

3 Associate Professor, Department of Training and Consulting, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

4 Assistant Professor, Department of Training and Consulting, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

5 Assistant Professor, Department of General Linguistics, Educational Research and Planning Organization, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran


Purpose: The aim of this study is to model a citizenship education curriculum for students with special needs for digital citizenship education.
Method: The qualitative methodology of the grounded theory approach has been used. The statistical population is experts and specialists in special curriculum planning and experts of exceptional organizations. Sampling was performed using the non-probabilistic judgmental (targeted) method. Interviews were conducted with research samples. To sample, the snowball method was used and the interview was conducted in a semi-structured manner with open and general questions for up to 15 people to saturate the data, but for more assurance, up to 24 people were interviewed. Finally, the factors were identified using the foundation data technique using Atlas ti software. An in-depth interview was used as the main data collection tool at this stage.
Findings: Based on the obtained results, a total of 106 concepts and 21 categories or open-source codes were identified and extracted. The 21 identified categories were divided into 6 main datasets of the foundation.
Among the identified factors, the axial coding paradigm was performed and based on that, the linear relationship was determined between research categories including causal conditions, axial categories, contextual conditions, intervening conditions, strategies, and consequences.
Conclusion: The results show the importance of the content of citizenship education and training methods. Regarding teaching and learning methods, the formation of informal groups and monitoring of the activities of groups, learning in practice, and student-centered and participatory teaching methods are emphasized.


Abbaszadeh Shahri, T., Shafizadeh, H., Soleimani, N. (2021). Designing a model for educating professional citizens in education based on data theory. Islamic lifestyle with a focus on health, 5(3): 139- 129.
Afrooz, G.A. (2021). Introduction to the Education of Exceptional Children, Thirty-first Edition. Tehran, Tehran University Press.
Ahangar A., Soltani Nejad, M., Darreh Kurdi, A. (2020). A Comparative Study of Perception and Syntactic Production between Educable Mentally Retarded Children and Normal Persian Speaking Children, Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, 9(3). 285-274.
Alevriadou, A., & Lang, L. (2011). Active Citizenship and contexts of special education. CiCe.
Alipour, A., Ali Asgari, M., Hosseinikhah, AS, Haj Hosseinnejad, H. (2020). Explaining the elements of the curriculum for job empowerment of mentally retarded children (synthesis research) ‌. Bi-Quarterly Journal of Theory and Practice in the Curriculum, 8(15): 382-347.
Alkahtani, M. A., & Al-Qahtani, H. (2017).  Promoting Active Participation of Children with Intellectual Disabilities in Social Activities through Citizenship Education in Disability Centers in Tabuk, Saudi Arabia. Educational Research and Reviews,12(19): 950-955
Araayesh, M., Sheikhi, M. T., Ejlali, H. P. (2019). Development of a model for citizenship education with an approach based on data foundation theory, Urban Sociological Studies, 9(31): 118-85.
Behpajooh, A. (2019). Intelligence Disability: Definition, Classification and Support Systems, Second Edition, Tehran, University of Tehran Publishing Institute.
Behrad, B. (2005) Educational Content and Preparation of Educable Mentally Retarded Children in the Field of Independent Life Skills from the Perspective of Teachers and Parents, Research in Exceptional Children, 17(3): 294-271.
Bezliudnyi, R. (2019). Inclusive education of teenagers with special needs in the United States of America. Pavlo Tychyna Uman State Pedagogical University,1, 1-7.
Bruce, J., North, C., FitzPatrick, J. (2019). Preservice teachers’ views of global citizenship and implications for global citizenship education. Globalisation, Societies and Education, 1-16.
Capri, C. (2019). The politics of person-making: Ethics of care, Intellectual impairment citizenship, and a reclaiming of knowledge. In The Palgrave handbook of disability and citizenship in the Global South, p. 269-292. Palgrave Macmillan, Cham.
Creswell, J. W. (2012). Resarch Design: Qualitative, Quanlitative and Mixed Metod Approaches, 3rd ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Farrell, M. (2009). Foundations of Special Education: An Introduction. Malden: Wiley-Blackwell.
Garrote, A. (2017). The Relationship between Social Participation and Social Skills of Pupils with an Intellectual Disability: A Study in Inclusive Classrooms. Frontline Learning Research, 5(1): 1-15.
Ghiasvand, A. (2015). Citizenship Education in Tehran Schools, Effects and Consequences, Quarterly Journal of Welfare Planning and Social Development, 23: 207-231.
Golshani, M., Maki Al-Agha, b. A. Etemad Ahari, A. (2020). Designing a model of citizenship education curriculum for students. Journal of Research in Educational Systems, 14(51): 60-39.
Halgin, RP, Cross Whitburn, S. (2014). Psychopathology (Clinical Perspectives on Mental Disorders Based on DSM-5, (Yahya Seyed Mohammadi, translation) Volume One, Tehran, Ravan Publishing, Thirteenth Edition.
Hallahan, D. P., Kauffman, J. M., & Pullen, P. C. (2009). Exceptional learners: An Introduction to Education. Allyn & Bacon, Pearson Education, Inc. USA.
Hornby, G. (2015). Inclusive special education: development of a new theory for the education of children with special educational needs and disabilities. British Journal of Special Education, 42(3): 234-256
Hu, H., Gao, J., Jiang, H., Jiang, H., Guo, S., Chen, K., ... & Qi, Y. (2018). A comparative study of behavior problems among left-behind children, migrant children and local children. International journal of environmental research and public health,15(4): 655.
Jæger, B. (2021). Digital Citizenship – A review of the academic literature. dms – der moderne staat – Zeitschrift für Public Policy, Recht und Management, 14(1), 24–42
Kauffman, J. M., Hallahan, D. P., & Lloyd, J. W. (1998). Politics, science, and the future of learning disabilities. Learning Disability Quarterly, 21(4): 276-280.
Koh M., Shin S. (2017). Education of students with disabilities in the USA: Is Inclusion the answer? International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research, 16(10): 1-17
Lindfors, M., Pettersson, F., & Olofsson, A. D. (2021). Conditions for professional digital competence: the teacher educators’ view. Education Inquiry, 12(4), 390-409
Mattson, K. (2016). Moving Beyond Personal Responsibility: A Critical Discourse Analysis of Digital Citizenship Curricula. Doctoral dissertation. DeKalb, IL: Northern Illinois University, Department of Leadership, Educational Psychology, and Foundations
Nesayan, A., Asadi Gandmani, R.(2016). The effectiveness of social skills training on behavioral problems of adolescents with mental disabilities. Rehabilitation Quarterly, 17(2): 166-158.
Ortegren, A. (2022). Digital Citizenship and Professional Digital Competence Swedish Subject Teacher Education in a Postdigital Era. Postdigital Science and Education, 4: 467-493.
Rahm, L. (2019). Educational imaginaries – a genealogy of the digital citizen. Doctoral dissertation. Linköping: Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences
Sincer, I., Severiens, S. & Volman, M. (2019). Teaching diversity in citizenship education: Context-related teacher understandings and practices. Teaching and Teacher Education, 78: 183-92.
Sobhani Nejad, M., Najafi, H., Jafari Harandi, R. (2018). Analysis of the position of the basic components of citizenship education in the content of elementary school social studies textbooks, education and learning research (Daneshvar Behavior),15(1): 67-78.
Starkey, L. (2020). A review of research exploring teacher preparation for the digital age. Cambridge Journal of Education, 50(1), 37-56
Tapingkae, P., Panjaburee, P., Hwang, G. J., & Srisawasdi, N. (2020). Efects of a formative assessmentbased contextual gaming approach on students’ digital citizenship behaviours, learning motivations, and perceptions. Computers & Education, 159, 103998
Zigler, E. (1999). The individual with mental retardation as a whole person. Personality development in individuals with mental retardation, ed. E. Zigler & D. Bennett-Gates, 1-16.